Effect of structured physical exercise program on older adult's daily living activities and cognitive functions

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Background: Older adults experience marked physiological and cognitive changes. Literature states that, daily exercising positively effects older adults' both physical and cognitive functioning. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the developed Structured Physical Exercise Program (SPEP) on both older adult's activities of daily living and cognitive functions. Subjects and methods: A quasi experimental design (pre/ post- tests) was utilized for the current study where the older adults' sample served as their own control. The study was conducted at a charity geriatric home (Female section) in Giza Governorate on a convenient sample of 45 older adult females. Data were collected through using three tools; Personal and clinical data assessment sheet, and the two pre-post scales (i.e. Activity of Daily Living scale "ADL" and Nurses’ Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities "NOSCA"); both scales were already developed and tested before. Results: Data revealed that, after implementation of SPEP, statistically significant differences, indicating improvement, were found between the older adult's ADL and both their age, presence of support network, the number of offspring and medical history. Also Statistically significant difference, indicating improvement, was found between ADL and NOSCA scales among the study sample before and after implementing the SPEP. Conclusion: Both ADL level and cognitive functions of study sample were significantly improved after implementing the SPEP. Regular physical exercising is likely to have positive effect on both older adults' physical and cognitive functioning resulting in higher level of independency. Recommendation: This study recommends wide range application of the developed SPEP on older adults in Egypt.

  • Keywords

    Activities of Daily Living (ADL); Cognitive Function; Nurses’ Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities (NOSCA); Older Adult; Structured Physical Exercise Program (SPEP).

  • References

      [1] American Psychological Association APA. (2013). Older adults' Health and Age-Related Changes, http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/resources/guides/older.aspx?item=2 .

      [2] APA. (2013). Changes in Mental Health and Mental Processes, http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/resources/guides/older.aspx?item=3 .

      [3] APA. (2013). Changes in Mental Health and Mental Processes, http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/resources/guides/older.aspx?item=6 .

      [4] Barnes D. E., Yaffe K., Satariano W. A., and Tager I. B. (2003). "A longitudinal study of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in healthy older adults," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 459–465, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51153.x.

      [5] Benevolent Society. (2013). (www.benevolent.org.au).

      [6] Best Practice Information on Care Of Older adults. (2012). New York University, College of Nursing Issue Number 2, Revised. Hartford Institute Website www.hartfordign.org & www.ConsultGeriRN.org.

      [7] Bozo O, Guarnaccia CA. (2010): Activities of Daily Living, Social Support, and Future Health of Older Americans. The Journal of Psychology, 2010, 144(1), 1–14 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980903356032.

      [8] Chaddock L, Pontifex M, Hillman CH, Kramer AF. (2011). A Review of the relation of Aerobic Activity to Brain Structure and Function in Children. J of Int Neuropsychol Society;17: 1-11. Doi. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617711000567.

      [9] Colcombe S J Erickson KI, Raz NI. (2003); Aerobic fitness re-duces brain tissue loss in aging humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 58A: 176-180. Coded in The Effect of Physical Activity on Cognition – Physiological Mechanisms Mat Soc Med. 2012 Sep; 24(3): 198-20.

      [10] Egypt Age structure. (2014). www.indexmun-di.com/factbook> Countries > Egypt > Demographics. August 23.

      [11] Flaherty, E., Fulmer, T., & Mezey, M. (2003). Geriatric Nursing Review Syllabus: a core curriculum in advanced practice geriatric nursing. New York: American Geriatrics Society.

      [12] Foreman, M. D., Fletcher, K., Mion, L. C., & Trygstad, L. (2003). Assessing cognitive function, Geriatric protocol for best practice, edited by M. Mezey, T. Fulmer, I. abraham, & D. A. Zwicker, pp. 99-115. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

      [13] Gligoroska, Pluncevic, J. and Sanja Manchevska. (2012). "The Effect of Physical Activity on Cognition–Physiological Mechanisms." Materia socio-medica 24.3 198. http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/msm.2012.24.198-202.

      [14] Graf C.M.S. (2008). The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, 108 :( 4), PP.52 – 62 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000314810.46029.74.

      [15] Guralnik, j. M., e. M. Simonsick, l. Ferrucci, L. (2006) A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J. Gerontol. Med. Sci. 49:M85–M94, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/49.2.M85.

      [16] Kamegaya, F. (2012). Pleasant Physical Exercise Program for Prevention of Cognitive Decline In Community-dwelling Elderly with Subjective Memory Complaints. Geriatric GerontolInt12 (4): PP.673-679.

      [17] Kovatch S., Smith M., and Segal J., (2013). Maintaining of life style after 50 years of age; Exercise and Fitness retrieved from, http://www.helpguide.org/life/senior.

      [18] Kovatch, S. M.F.A., and Segal, J. (2013). Exercise and Fitness over 50,http://www.helpguide.org/life/senior_fitness_sports.htm.

      [19] Kruk B., and Joanna S., (2007). "Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: an analysis of the recent evidence." Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 8.3 (2007): 325.

      [20] Langley, L. K. (2000). Cognitive assessment of older adults, assessing older persons: measures, meaning, and practical applications, edited by Kane RL & R. Kane, pp. 65-128. New York: Oxford University Press.

      [21] Lautenschlager D., & Nicola T., (2008). "Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease." JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association 300.9; PP.1027-1037.

      [22] Milisen, K., Braes, T., Fick, D. M., & Foreman, M. D. (2006). Cognitive assessment and differentiating the 3 Ds (dementia, depression, delirium). Nurs. Clin. North Am. 41, 1-22, v. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2005.09.001.

      [23] P Heyn, BC (2004). American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of physical medicine and rehabilitation, Elsevier.

      [24] Perls, Thomas T., Morris JN, Ooi WL, Lipsitz LA "(2005).The relationship between age, gender and cognitive performance in the very old: the effect of selective survival." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

      [25] Persoon (2011). Development of the nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilties ISRN Nursing.

      [26] Persoon et al. (2012), Validation of the NOSCA – nurses' observation scale of cognitive abilities. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21: 3025–3036. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702..04129. X.

      [27] Persoon, A., Joosten.V, Weyn.D, Bannigh, L., Vrie, W., Rikkert, M. G. M. & Achterberg, T. v. (2009). Daily observation of cognitive functioning in hospitalized patients on geriatric wars. J of Clinical Nursing,; 18, 1930-1936. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02811.x.

      [28] Spirduso, Waneen W., and D. Leilani Cronin. (2007). "Exercise dose-response effects on quality of life and independent living in older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33.6; SUPP S598-S608.

      [29] Strength Training for older adults (2002). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Growing Stronger. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/growingstronger .

      [30] Suzuki et al. (2012). Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Neurology 12:128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-12-128.

      [31] WHO May (2013). Physical Activity and Older Adult, http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_olderadults/en .

      [32] Wiener, Joshua M., (2013). Measuring the activities of daily living: Comparisons across national surveys." Journal of Gerontology 45.6: PP.S229-S237.‏

      [33] Wisdom, Marjorie. Mcgee, Horner-johnson, Yvonne. Michael, Adams, and Berlin. (2010). Health Disparities between Women with and Without Disabilities: A Review of the Research. Soc Work Public Health. May; 25(3): PP.368–386. doi: 10.1080/19371910903240969 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19371910903240969.

      [34] Woodford H.J. and J. George, (2007). Cognitive assessment in the elderly. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine,, 100 :(8), PP. 469-484.

      [35] World Health Organization WHO (2013). Health statistics and health information systems, http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/ .




Article ID: 3789
DOI: 10.14419/ijans.v4i1.3789

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.