Assessment of HIV/AIDS educational intervention on stigma reduction among nurses: a quasi-experimental study

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Background: In a setting where HIV/AIDS is highly endemic, nurses may respond to patients with increase fear of being at risk of acquiring HIV infection, decrease willingness to care, or both. The resulting stigmatization creates social barriers and discrimination between nurses and patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Objectives: This study aimed to increase nurses knowledge on HIV/AIDS and reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in healthcare through HIV/AIDS educational intervention.

    Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out in all nursing departments of Shaqra General Hospital from February to April 2014. Nurses (n = 58), meeting the eligibility criteria, were included in the sample and were non-randomly assigned in one-group pre-test and post-test using purposive sampling technique.

    Results: The results of the pre- and post-intervention phases were compared using paired-sample t-test. Significant increase in nurses knowledge was demonstrated following HIV/AIDS educational intervention (p = 0.000). HIV/AIDS educational intervention was significantly associated with less stigmatization for attitudes towards imposed measures (p = 0.002). In pre-intervention phase, the greatest stigmatizing attitude was observed in statement concerning the need for screening all inpatients for HIV/AIDS. The assessment at pre- and post-intervention for comfortableness dealing with HIV/AIDS patients did not differ significantly, indicating least stigmatizing attitude. However, a statistical significant difference (p = 0.044) on nurses overall attitude towards patients with HIV/AIDS was detected between pre- and post-intervention assessment. Pooled mean revealed no observed discriminatory act among nurses at pre- and post-intervention assessment.

    Conclusion: The utilization of HIV/AIDS educational intervention improved nurses theoretical knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Although nurses knowledge on HIV/AIDS was improved significantly, their attitudes of blame or judgment as well as their comfortableness dealing with HIV/AIDS patients have not changed. The effectiveness of HIV/AIDS educational intervention in reducing HIV/AIDS-related discrimination as well as its impact on nurses attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS warrants further investigation.

    Keywords: Attitudes, Discrimination, Educational Intervention, HIV/AIDS, and Stigma.

  • References

    1. Al-Mazrou YY, Abouzeid MS & Al-Jeffri MH (2005), Impact of health education on knowledge and attitudes of Saudi paramedical students toward HIV/AIDS. Saudi Medical Journal, 26 (11), 1788-1795. DOI: 20050780'
    2. Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Jeffri MH, Fidail AI, Al-Huzaim N, & El-Gizouli SE (2005), HIV/AIDS epidemic features and trends in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 25 (2): 100-104.
    3. Andrewin A & Chien L (2008), Stigmatization of patients with HIV/AIDS among doctors and nurses in Belize. AIDS Patient Care and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2(11), 897-906. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2007.0219
    4. Badahdah AM (2010), Stigmatization of Persons with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(4), 386-392. DOI: 10.1177/1043659609360873.
    5. Brou H et al. (2007), When do HIV-infected women disclose their HIV status to their male partner and why? A study in a PMTCT programme. Abidjan. Public Library of Science Medicine, 4(2), e342. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040342
    6. Bwirire LD et al. (2008), Reasons for loss to follow-up among mothers registered in a prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission program in Rural Malawi. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 102(12), 1195-1200. DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.04.002.
    7. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), Disparities in HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB. Available at: (Accessed 14 February 2014).
    8. Eckstein EC (1987), Knowledge and attitudes of nurses regarding patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University.
    9. Goffman E (1963), Stigma and social identity: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 4.
    10. Hamama L, Tartakovsky E, Eroshina K, Patrakov E, Golubkova A, Bogushevich J, & Shardina L (2014), Nurses' job satisfaction and attitudes towards people living with HIV/ AIDS in Russia. International Nursing Review, 61(1), 131-139. DOI: 10.1111/inr.12074
    11. Hasan MT, Khan NS, Akram O, Gomes TM, & Rashid SF (2012), Experiences of discrimination among people living with HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Asia Journal of Public Health, 3(2), 44-52.
    12. Herek GM, Mitnick L, Burris S, Chesney M, Devine P, Thompson Fullilove M, Fullilove R, Gunther HC, Levi J, Michaels S, Novick A, Pryor J, Snyder M, & Sweeney T (2008), Workshop report: AIDS and stigma: A conceptual framework and research agenda. AIDS Public Policy Journal, 16-25.
    13. Karim, QA et al. (2008), the influence of AIDS stigma and discrimination and social cohesion on HIV testing and willingness to disclose HIV in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Global Public Health, 3(4), 351-365.
    14. Rai MA, Warraich HJ, Ali SH, & Nerurkar VR (2007), HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: The battle begins. BioMed Central Journal; 1-3.
    15. Sengupta S, Banks B, Jonas D, Miles MS & Smith GC (2011), HIV interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: A systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, 15(6), 1075-1087.
    16. Ullah AKMA (2011), HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: A study of health care providers in Bangladesh. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care; 10 (2): 97-104. DOI: 10.1177/1545109710381926.
    17. UNAIDS (2013), Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Available at: (Accessed 15 March 2014).
    18. UNAIDS & WHO (2008). 2007 Middle East and North Africa: AIDS epidemic update regional summary.
    19. Zeighami MS, Zeinali E, Esmaily H & Nikbakht Nasrabadi A (2011), Fear of being at risk of acquiring HIV, willingness to care, and discrimination in care and treatment of AIDS patients among nurses. Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, 8(3), 217-228.




Article ID: 3609
DOI: 10.14419/ijans.v3i2.3609

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.